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அழகி மென்பொருள்
Tamil-English bilingual webmagazine dedicated to education of the masses through E-books, articles, worldwide informations, Slideshows,
Presentations on various subjects, photographs and images, moral and objective oriented stories and Lectures including audio and video

Ayodhya Facts

Courtesy: R. Vijayaragavan, chennai

Summary Of Facts

by R.K. Hariprasad, and Sonu Nadira

There is incontrovertible archaeological evidence which proves that there did exist at the very spot of the Ram Janma Bhoomi a magnificent temple from at least the 12th Century A.D. onwards which was destroyed to build a mosque like structure over it in the 16th Century A.D.

There may have existed at this site one or more temples of still greater antiquity, which were rebuilt or renovated later thru out history.

Summary Of Archaelogical Evidence:

1. The Babri structure had 14 pillars made of 'Kasauti' black stone with Hindu images. Also inside the Babri compound was a piece of a door jamb with images of 'Mukut-dhari Dwarpal' and 'Devakanyas'. Iconographical evaluation of these pillars and the door jamb by Dr. S. P. Gupta (former Director of Allahabad Museum) showed that these belonged to a Hindu temple of the 11 th Century A.D. period when the Garhwal Kings of Kanauj ruled Ayodhya. 2. Between 1975 and 1980 Prof. B. B. Lal (the then Director General of Archaeological Survey of India) conducted an excavation behind the Babri structure and even touching it. The excavation showed pillar bases of burnt bricks (of the preexisting temple). The most beautiful pottery dated around 8 th-9th Century B.C. was also found.

3. On June 18 th 1992, when the ground near the Ram Janma Bhoomi was being levelled, at a depth of 12 ft, several beautifully carved buff sandstone objects were found. These objects included images of Vaishnav divinities with one 'Chakrapurush' sculpture also showing 'Parashuram' and 'Balram', an image of 'Shiv-Parvati' (largely broken) and many carved stones such as corner were terrecotta Hindu images of Kushan period (1 st to 3 rd Century A.D.). These and other objects found during subsequent excavations during July 1992, were found to be members of a Hindu temple complex of about 11 th Century A.D. by a team of 8 eminent archaeologists and historians. The team included Dr. Y. D. Sharma, former Deputy Director General of Archaeological Survey of India, and Prof. B. R. Grover, Director of Indian Council for Historical Research.

4. The destruction of Babri structure on Dec. 6, 1992 revealed many archaeological remains which irrefutably prove that Mir Baqi had incorporated parts of the preexisting temple in the construction of the Babri mosque. The remains include a temple bell, several intricate and detailed carvings, an image of Vishnu, and several other Hindu images. The principal amongst the findings however is a 2 ft wide by 4.5 ft long buff sandstone tablet 'SHILA LEKH' bearing an inscription in 'Devanagari' script and Sanskrit language. The 'Shila lekh' describes an ancient Ram Mandir existing at Ram Janma Bhoomi at least since the 12 th Century A.D. which was built by a Garhwal king Raja Govindachandra.

The 4 th line of this 'Shila lekh' specifically describes a temple of Lord Vishnu (Hari) at the 'Janma Bhoomi Sthal'. The 15 th line describes it as a massive, magnificent temple dominating the landscape, and with steeples 'shikhar' adorned with gold 'Kalash'. The 17 th line specifically mentions the location as Ayodhya and the 'Saket Mandal', while the 19 th line mentions the 'Vaman Avatar' and then mentions Ram as the destroyer of evil Ravan. net, it was a temple! Brief History - 1528 thru 1934:

As per historians, since 1528 there have been at least 76 armed conflict in which over 300,000 Hindus sacrificed their lives to restore the Ram Janma Bhoomi temple.

Summary of these conflicts is as follows:

1. Babar's reign (1528-1530) - Hindus launched 4 attacks in which 100,000 people were killed.
2. Humayun's reign (1530-1556) - Hindus launched 10 separate initiatives to regain control.
3. Akbar's reign (1556-1605) - Hindus fought 20 battles.
4. Aurangzeb's reign (1658-1707)- Hindus fought 30 battles. One such battle was led by Guru Gobind Singh in which Aurangzeb?s army was defeated.
5. Four years later, Aurangzeb?s again attacked Ayodhya and regained control after killing 10,000 Hindus.
6. Sahdat Ali (1798-1814) - Hindus fought 5 battles.
7. Nasir-uddin Haidar (1814-1837) - Hindus fought 3 battles.
8. Wajid Ali Shah (1847-1857) - Hindus fought 2 battles.
9. British Rule (1912-1934) - Hindus fought 2 armed conflicts.

Hindus never gave up on one of their holiest places. Hence the only conflict free periods were when they were allowed to worship inside the disputed structure. For example, in order to avoid further conflict, during the latter part of his reign Akbar allowed Hindus to build a platform known as 'Ram Chabutra', and to install and worship images of Ram Parivar in the so called Babri compound. This practice was later opposed by Aurungzeb which resulted in most battles for the control of the shrine during his reign.

In 1751 A.D. Maratha Sardar Malhar Rao Holkar after defeating the Pathans in the plains of Ganga and Yamuna, asked Nawab Safderjang to hand over Ayodhya, Kashi and Prayag to the Peshwas. In a letter dated February 23, 1756, Nanasaheb Peshwa asked Sardar Scindia to annex Ayodhya and Kashi as the handover of these holy places was already promised to Raghoba Dada by Suja-uddoula.

Later in 1789 A.D. Sardar MahadJi Scindia did annex Ayodhya, Mathura and Kashi, but due to his untimely demise was not able to restore the temples of Ram Janma Bhoomi, Krishna Janma Bhoomi and Kashi Vishweshwar back to Hindus. Joseph Tieffenthaler (1710 - 1785), an Austrian Jesuit priest toured Oudh (Ayodhya) region between 1766 and 1771 A.D. His account of Indian History and geography was translated and published in French in 1786 A.D.

Tieffenthaler states 'The Emperor Aurungzeb destroyed the fortress called Ramkot and built at the same place a Mohammedan temple with 3 domes. Others say that it has been built by Babar. One can see 14 columns made of black stone .. which bear carvings ... Subsequently Aurungzeb, and some say Babar destroyed the (heathen) place in order to prevent heathens from practicing their ceremonies.

However they have continued to practice their religious ceremonies in both the places(inside the 3 domed Babri structure and the compound), knowing this to have been birth place of Rama, by going around it 3 times and prostrating on ground".

According to the British records by Thornton (1854 A.D.) and Carnegie (1870 A.D.) till 1855 A.D. Hindus continued to worship Ram in the 3 domed structure. During the First War of Independence of 1857 the local Muslim leader Amir Ali persuaded the Muslims to finally hand over the disputed place to Hindus and jointly fight with the British. However the British won the War of 1857 and Amir Ali and Hindu leader Baba Ram Charan Das were publicly hanged from a tree near the Ram Janma Bhoomi.

The British subsequently put a railing wall between Babri structure and the courtyard and separated the Muslim worshipers who got the Babri structure and Hindus had no choice but to do puja outside in the courtyard. NET - Hindus continued to worship at the disputed structure and never gave up struggle to regain control of Ram Janma Bhoomi since 1528.

Recent History - 1934 thru 1992:

In 1934, during the armed conflict between Hindus and Muslims the Babri structure was damaged. Since 1936, the Babri structure was an abandoned building and did not function as a community mosque for local muslims. There is no evidence of any Mutawalli or Imam or Muazzin or Khatib or Khadim having functioned as the mosque management as such for the up keep and maintenance of the 'mosque'.

A Waqf report dated September 16, 1938 showed 'Syed Mohammad Zaki' as a Mutawalli. But later the District Waqf Commissioner found that Mutawalli Zaki was a Shia, an opium addict and most unsuited for the duties of a Mutawalli. Meanwhile the Sunni Waqf Board claimed that Babri mosque was under its control.

A report dated December 10, 1949 by the Waqf inspector Mohammad Ibrahim, to the U.P. Sunni Central Board of Waqf, states that 'due to the fear of Hindus and Sikhs? NO ONE OFFERED NAMAZ IN THE SAID 'MOSQUE'.

On December 23, 1949 the image of 'Ramalalla' appeared in the disputed structure and Hindus resumed prayers and worship inside. On December 29, 1949 Additional Magistrate Markandey Singh confiscated the building and handed over the posession to Priya Dutta Ram as Receiver, who assumed charge of the same on January 5, 1950.

After almost 12 years, on December 18, 1961 the Sunni Waqf Board filed the law suit seeking the possession of the disputed structure. This law suit was liable to be dismissed since the then prevalent statute of limitation for property takeover of 6 years had already passed.

Since December 23, 1949 there have been daily Hindu prayers and worship at the Ram Janma Bhoomi Temple. Yet, Babri was not a functional Mosque, and it has been a functional temple for atleast 42 years.

"Mosques built after destroying temples are the sign of slavery and Muslims should hand over the same to Hindu Society" -Mahatma Gandhi in 'Navjeevan' dated July 17, 1937. "Hindus profess secularism because they are cowards and are afraid of Muslim countries." - Syed Shahabuddin - Convenor of Babri Masjid Coordination Committee (BMCC) in 'Sunday' dated March 20, 1983.

On April 7-8, 1984 the Dharma Sansad (religious congregation) took decision to launch a movement for replacement of the existing mosque-turned temple with a proper temple structure.

Options offered by Hindu Leadership:

Prior to December 6, 1992 Hindus had offered following options: Muslims should hand over the Babri structure as a goodwill gesture to Hindus. The unused Babri mosque has no religious significance to Muslims what so ever, (since as per the administrative officials in Faizabad, Of the 26 Mosques in Ayodhya region just half are in use for offering namaz and the rest are in a bad shape), hence this is not an unreasonable request. If that is not acceptable, then this nonfunctional mosque should be relocated.

Hundreds of mosques in other Islamic countries have been relocated for minor reasons such as road expansion. So there is ample precedent for it. Since the location of Ram Janma cannot be changed the temple cannot be moved. If the superstructure is important to the Muslims then it can be relocated to another site, the way Abu Simbel temple in Egypt was moved out of the way of the Aswan Dam. Hindus will bear all the relocation expenses.

India has demonstrated technology for this operation since recently 800 year old Kudavelli Sangameshwara temple in Andhra Pradesh was taken apart and rebuilt 600 meters from the original site. Some Shia leaders had agreed to the latter plan. However to the prominent Muslim leadership (BMCC and BMAC) all such proposals were futile. The biggest concession they were willing to make was to allow a Ram temple next to the Babri structure (meaning the sign of Muslim conquest will continue to look down upon the temple, as an insult to Hindus).

The events of December 6, 1992 should be viewed in light of these facts. You are encouraged to read more and find out for yourself the truth behind the Ayodhya issue.


1. Ram Janmabhoomi Vs Babri Masjid -by K. Elst, Voice of India Publ, 1990, 173pp
2. Ayodhya & After - by K. Elst, Voice of India Publ, 1991, 419 pp
3. VHP's evidence on Ram Janmabhoomi, 6 th January 1991
4. Vivek, Special Ayodhya issue 1993
5. Ram Janma Bhoomi - New Archeological Evidence, by Y.D. Sharma et al published by Historians' Forum, New Delhi, 1992
6. Ayodhya - Dec.6, 1992, Destruction of Babri structure - Who? What? Why? A Video (report) by Jain Studios, New Delhi.
7. Legal Aspects of RJB/ BM issue - by Justice Deoki Nandan.

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